The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA Adelges tsugae Annand) is ail introduced insect pest that threatens to decimate eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) populations. In this study, we used the ecosystem demography model in conjunction with a stochastic model of HWA spread to predict the impact of HWA infestation oil the current and future forest composition, Structure, and carbon (C) dynamics in the eastern United States. The spread model predicted that oil average the hemlock stands south and east of the Great Lakes would be infested by 2015, southern Michigan would be reached by 2020, and northeastern Minnesota by 2030. For the period 2000-2040, the ecosystem demography model predicted a mean reduction of 0.011 Pg C.year(-1) (Pg C = 10(15) g C), in 8% decrease, in the uptake of carbon from eastern United States forests as a result of HWA-caused mortality, followed by an increased uptake of 0.015 Pg C.year(-1) (a 12% increase) in the period 2040-2100, as the area recovers from the loss of hemlock. Overall. we conclude that while locally severe, HWA infestation is unlikely to have a significant impact oil the regional patterns of carbon fluxes, given that eastern hemlock represents a limited friction of the standing biomass of eastern forests and that it has relatively low productivity compared with the tree species that are likely to replace it.
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